An established mathematician and physicist, Isaac Newton is most famous for proposing laws of gravitation. Credited as one of the great minds of the 17th century Scientific Revolution, Newton developed the principles of modern physics with discoveries in mechanics, mathematics and optics. In mechanics, his three laws of motion, the basic principles of modern physics, resulted in the formulation of the law of universal gravitation. In mathematics, he contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, developed Newton’s method for approximating the roots of a function, and classified most of the cubic plane curves. He was the original discoverer of the infinitesimal calculus. In optics, his discovery of the composition of white light integrated the phenomena of colours into the science of light and laid the foundation for modern physical optics.
Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, 1687) was one of the most important single works in the history of modern science. In this magnum opus, he laid the foundations for classical mechanics by formulating the Three Laws of Motion, which were derived from Johann Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion and his own mathematical description of gravity. His law of universal gravitation, which states that every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both point, was also formulated in Principia.
He also formulated an empirical law of cooling, studied the speed of sound, and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. This term is used to describe any fluid where the viscous stresses arising from its flow, at every point, are linearly proportional to the rate of change of its deformation over time. Beyond his work in mathematics, optics and physics, he also devoted a significant amount of time studying Biblical chronology and alchemy, but most of his work in these areas remained unpublished until long after his death.
He was elected the president of the Royal Society of London in 1703 and was re-elected each year until his death. He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and became the first scientist to be honoured for his work.
This network of highways connecting North and South America was conceived as a single route and it later grew to include a number of designated highways in the participating countries. Covering almost 48,000 km, the highway is known as the longest motorable road in the world. However, it is not possible to drive all the way since the route is interrupted by the 160 km wide Darién Gap between Central and South America.
From arid deserts to dense jungles, the highway passes through diverse climates and ecological settings. It runs through mountains, deserts, jungles and glaciers. The northern part of the road goes through Canada, United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. The southern part crosses Suriname, Guyana, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. While it doesn't officially have a route through the U.S. and Canada, some people start in Alaska and drive/bike to Ushuaia, Argentina, the southernmost tip of South America.
The Inter-American Highway, from Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, to Panama City (5,390 km), is a part of it. The Mexican section was built and financed entirely by Mexico, while the sections through the smaller Central American countries were built with U.S. assistance. In the early 21st century, a portion about 80 km long, called the Darien Gap highway (located in Panama and Colombia), remained uncompleted.
WEEK IN HISTORY
191 people were killed and nearly 2,000 injured when 10 bombs exploded on four trains in three Madrid-area train stations during the morning rush hour.
The Church of England ordained women priests.
The German-born English astronomer William Hershel discovered Uranus, the seventh planet from the sun.
Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany. Einstein’s theories of special and general relativity drastically altered man’s view of the universe, and his work in particle and energy theory helped make possible quantum mechanics and, ultimately, the atomic bomb.
The first performance of My Fair Lady, starring Julie Andrews and Rex Harrison, took place on Broadway.
Robert H. Goddard successfully launched the world’s first liquid-fueled rocket at Auburn, Massachusetts. The rocket traveled for 2.5 seconds at a speed of about 60 mph, reaching an altitude of 41 feet and landing 184 feet away. The rocket was 10 feet tall, constructed out of thin pipes, and was fueled by liquid oxygen and gasoline.
During the American War for Independence, British forces were forced to evacuate Boston following Patriot General George Washington’s successful placement of fortifications and cannons on Dorchester Heights, which overlooked the city from the south.
Located on an island on the Lake Schwerin, the Schwerin Castle is one of the most beautiful castles in Germany. Built between 1845 and 1857, the castle served as the seat of the Grand Dukes of Mecklenburg who ruled the Mecklenburg region in the name of the King of Prussia. Built by architects Gottfried Semper, Friedrich August Stiller, Ernst Friedrich Zwirner and Georg Adolf Demmler; the castle served as a home for the dukes and grand dukes of Mecklenburg.
Its construction was ordered by Grand Duke Friedrich who disliked the clash of architectural styles and withering condition of the building that was currently on the site. It was his successor, Friedrich Franz II, however, who saw out the complete reconstruction, with only a few elements dating from the 16th and 17th century buildings retained. Its architecture was inspired by French Renaissance castles and completed by successive architects over the 12-year period.
A fire broke out in 1913 that destroyed almost a third of the building. It was made into a museum, only to be changed into a teaching school during the communist years from 1952 to 1981. In the 1990s, with the end of the Cold War, Schwerin Castle was once again made into a seat of parliament, museum and a must-see tourist destination.
The castle is now the seat of the State Parliament of Mecklenburg-West Pommerania and is also a State Art Museum, which houses works by German and Dutch Renaissance masters, Oudry’s largest collection of paintings and Houdon’s sculptures. With recreated living rooms and banquets halls displaying elaborate furnishing and rich ornaments, the museum details the history of the Grand Dukes and their reign. The throne room, with its columns made from Carrara marble and gilded cast-iron doors, is probably the palace’s most exquisite feature. The ancestral gallery and dining room with intricate panelling are also noteworthy. The children’s rooms exhibit porcelain from Meissen and Berlin, while a large collection of antique hunting arms are also on display. Regular concerts, most commonly of classical music, are held within this stunning setting. From the tower room, you can experience the breathtaking view surrounding the lake. The castle is surrounded by beautiful, landscaped, Baroque gardens.
The tourist office of the castle offers guided tours and audio tours all year round, daily except Mondays, and you can easily get the ticket on arrival.
In view of the hostilities which took place after its adoption, the Cypriot flag is a poignant symbol of well intentional attempts to unite the Greek and Turkish communities on the island. The use of blue and red, colours associated with Greece and Turkey, was deliberately avoided. The adoption of both the white field and crossed olive branches is symbolic of a desire for peace between the communities, white also being a neutral colour between the two. A map of Cyprus appears in orange, recalling the rich copper deposits for which the island was famous in ancient times. The flag came into use when the island became independent from Britain in 1960, and it may be flown together with the Greek and Turkish flags on public holidays.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
Like children everywhere, Charlie Bucket adores chocolate but, sadly, his family is so poor that they can only afford to buy him one bar a year, on his birthday. What makes poor Charlie’s longing even worse is that he has to walk everyday near the secretive Willy Wonka’s chocolate factory, which is the best in the world. When Charlie’s father loses his job, things go from bad to worse.
One day, Willy Wonka announces that he has hidden golden tickets in five Wonka Bars, with the prize of a tour of the factory for the five lucky winners. The sale of Wonka Bars rockets, Wonka-mania encircles the globe, and one by one the tickets are found: by greedy Augustus Gloop, bratty Veruca Salt, gum-chewing Violet Beauregard and television addict Mike Teavee. But there is still one golden ticket to find. Charlie’s desperation to be able to buy a Wonka Bar and finding the final golden ticket is a feeling that all children (and their parents) know.
The inside of the chocolate factory is magical, with its themed rooms, amazing chocolates and sweets, the Oompa-Loompas and, of course, Willy Wonka himself. The well-deserved, weird fates of the naughty children are hilarious, and the gruesome methods that have to be used to squeeze or stretch them back to normal are graphically illustrated. The Oompa-Loompahs are like some surreal Greek chorus as they regularly break into verse to comment on the children’s misbehaviour. As in all of his books, Dahl shows a deep understanding of how children think and feel; although the moral message is strong, the ridiculous consequences of being naughty make it easy to take, while the reward for being good is beyond any child’s wildest dreams.
1. The first American football game was played between which two teams?
2. Who was the first professional American football player?
3. Where does the Quarterback typically line up?
4. How many time outs does each team get per half?
5. How many yards do you need to get a first down?
6. How many points is a touchdown worth?
7. What are the dimensions of an entire NFL football field including the endzones?
8. Which type of penalty can results in the most amount of penalty yards?
9. How many downs do you get to obtain a first down?
10. How many different ways are there to score in American football?
Last week’s answers:
1. Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune
4. 10 hours and 47 minutes
7. Laika, a dog
8. Between Mars and Jupiter
9. Terrestrial and Jovian planets
10. Hydrogen and helium gas