A mountain pass by the Alps which forms a border between Italy and Austria, Brenner Pass has the lowest altitude among the Alpine passes. Its name is derived from ‘Prenner’, a German word, means somebody who clears the woodland. Dairy cattle can be seen grazing in alpine pastures in the valley beneath the pass and on the mountains above it throughout the hotter seasons in valleys. At lower heights, farmers log pine trees, plant crops and harvest hay for fodder during colder times. During the middle ages, the pass was used as a royal route that joined together Germany and Italy; the ruler of the former would often take this road when on his expeditions to the latter. Brenner Pass is historically significant because at the end of WWI in 1918, the control over became to be shared between Germany and Italy, with the Italian troops arriving between 1919 and 1920. Then during the WWII, Adolf Hitler and Italian Duce Benito Mussolini met at the very same pass to rejoice in their Pact of Steel on 18 March, 1940. Brenner pass was part of the ratlines used by some fleeing Nazis after the German surrender in 1945. The central section of Brenner Pass covers a four-lane motorway and railway tracks connecting south and to the north. The mere population of almost 400-600 people (as of 2011) enjoys the luxuries of shopping centres, fruit stores, restaurants, cafés, hotels and a gas station there. The Brenner Pass is the only major mountain pass within the area; other nearby alternatives are footpaths across higher mountains at an altitude of above 2,000 metres (6,600 feet).
Ernest Hemingway First Editions are among the books most coveted by bibliophiles, and this gift comprises 14 of them, each a different title. They range chronologically from In Our Time, Hemingway’s first short-story collection, published in 1925, to A Moveable Feast, a memoir published posthumously in 1964 about the years in the 1920s when he lived and wrote in Paris.
“A private collector might spend 10 to 15 years putting together a collection like this,” says Thatcher Wine, owner of Juniper Books, a Denver company that is offering the Hemingway collection to a Robb Report reader.
“He is one of the greatest short-story writers of all time, as well as one of America’s greatest novelists, and he’s definitely in the top five collected authors of the 20th century.”
Building a collection of this gift’s quality and scale requires tremendous patience and perseverance, according to Wine. While it is possible to track down a first edition of many of these titles at any given time, he says, examples that are in top condition and have retained their original dust jackets (or book jackets) seldom come up for sale.
This gift’s collection comprises only exceptional quality first editors, and each has its original jacket with the exception of The Sun Also Rises, which is in a facsimile because of its extreme rarity. The collection was assembled over the course of five years, by attending auctions and book fairs and contacting booksellers and private collectors.
Born: May 19, 1925, Omaha, Nebraska, United States
Occupation: Minister and human rights activist
Regarded as: One of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history
Assassinated: February 21, 1965, Washington Heights, New York, United States
Malcolm X, the leader of the Islamic Nation from 1950s to 60s, was born on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. He was an African-American Muslim minister and a human rights activist. An orphan from an early life, his father was killed when Malcolm was six years old while his mother, due the grief, was sent into a mental asylum when he was 13 years old, which led him to live in several foster homes. He dropped out of school two years later because of the racism he faced there. His teachers did not look positively at his future prospects of becoming a lawyer because he was African American. He then moved to Boston to live with his half-sister who got him a job. In Boston, he came under the influence of many drug dealers and criminals. Malcolm spent a lot of time selling drugs and started enjoying the luxuries that came with the money earned from this.
“Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today.”
It was during his time in jail that he resumed studying, spending hours reading books and making up for the schooling that he missed. There, he was contacted by Nation of Islam, a small sect of Muslims who embraced the ideology of African-American nationalism, to join in spreading of the idea that to gain equality, justice, freedom and peace, it was significant for the African Americans to separate themselves from white Americans. By the time his parole ended in 1952, he had become an influential leader of the organisation.
“You're not to be so blind with patriotism that you can't face reality. Wrong is wrong, no matter who does it or says it.”
His philosophy differed from Martin Luther King, who was also an African-American human rights activist. The former did not promote peace, but instead promoted all means of justice. He came under the leadership of Elijah Muhammad in order to spread the movement of the Nation of Islam among all African Americans. He travelled to Detroit, Michigan and then became the minister of Temples in Harlem and Boston. To further promote his mission, he started a national newspaper called Muhammad Speaks.
“I am for violence if non-violence means we continue postponing a solution to the American black man's problem just to avoid violence.”
A passionate, articulate and intelligent orator, he gathered a following of 40,000 members. Not appreciated by Martin Luther King because of the difference in ideologies, he still became the voice of a radicalised wing of the Civil Rights Movement. On February 21, 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated by getting shot 15 times by three gunmen at Audobon Ballroom in Manhattan, as he was preparing to deliver a speech.
In December 2011, stylist and digital influencer, Chriselle founded The Chriselle Factor to chronicle her daily musings and personal style. She also launched her YouTube channel to empower and inspire women all over the world by helping them discover their true beauty and gives them the confidence they need to feel beautiful. She had attracted an impressive 650k+ subscribers on her YouTube channel within a short period. With over 29 million views, it is safe to assume her the numero uno fashion expert on all of YouTube. Chriselle uses different portals to encourage, educate, and inspire all women across the globe through her personal style, runway trends, beauty secrets, and fashion tips and tricks. She is now one of the most influential tastemakers on the web.