David Hamilton Koch is an American businessman and a co-owner of Koch Industries, a conglomerate that is the second-largest privately held company in the United States. He graduated as a chemical engineer from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1962 and then obtained his Master’s degree a year later. After completing his education, he worked for several engineering consulting firms including the Amicon Corporation, Halco International, and the Scientific Design Company. He then joined the family business, Koch Industries that his father, Fred Koch, founded in 1940. Initially, Charles Koch, his elder brother, was heading the company and David worked as a technical-services manager under him. Eventually, David found his company’s New York office and became the president of his own division, Koch Engineering, renamed Chemical Technology Group. The Koch family is one of the wealthiest clan in the United States. He is also a very generous philanthropist and has donated millions to medical research causes and institutions including $100 million to MIT for the construction of a new facility.
Listed as one of the world's top 50 philanthropists by the Chronicle of Philanthropy, David serves on the boards of more than 20 non-profit corporations including the National Cancer Advisory Board of the National Cancer Institute, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, Rockefeller University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Aspen Institute, among others.
He received the prestigious Corporate Citizenship Award from the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in 2004. He was also honoured with the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center's Excellence in Corporate Leadership award in 2005 and Americans for Prosperity Foundation’s George Washington Award for Principled Leadership in 2007.
16 July, 1661: The first banknotes in Europe were issued by the Swedish bank Stockholms Banco.
17 July, 1918: In the Russian town of Ekaterinburg in Siberia, former Czar Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra, and their five children were brutally murdered by Bolsheviks.
18 July, 1900: Nadia Comaneci became the first person in Olympic Games history to score a perfect 10 in gymnastics at the 1976 Summer Olympics.
19 July, 1848: First US women's rights convention was held in Seneca Falls New York, organised by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott.
20 July, 1969: Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first men to walk on the moon.
21 July, 1960: Sirimavo Bandaranaike became the first woman prime minister of Ceylon.
Northern Lights is set in a parallel universe, with different technology and natural laws, where everyone is closely accompanied by a daemon, a manifestation of their soul, and the world is ruled by a strict church. This is the first in Pullman’s His Dark Materials trilogy. Lyra Belacqua is arebellious young girl who lives at Jordan College, Oxford. One evening, hidden in a wardrobe, she spies on her uncle, Loard Asriel, as he displays photographs of a mysterious substance called ‘Dust’ to the college’s scholars.
Rumours abound among the children that a group of evil people called Gobblers is kidnapping children. When Lyra’s friend Roger is taken by a woman with a golden monkey daemon, she decides to rescue him, but is persuaded by Mrs Coulter who has a golden monkey daemon to move in with her. Before she goes, the Master gives Lyra an alethiometer, a device that aids decision making. Lyra’s discovery that Mrs Coulter is the leader of the General Oblation Board of the church (the children’s Gobblers) who are taking the kidnapped children to the far north leads her to escape and she meets up with her friends the Gyptians. They have also been losing children and agree with her to head north. But why is Mrs Coulter kidnapping children? The horrifying truth is revealed to Lyra in the course of her quest.
This exciting, and spellbinding story for older children has been seen as an attack on Christianity, but it is in fact a condemnation of dogma and the way it can lead people to do terrible things in the name of their religion. Lyra, unsure who she can trust, and betrayed by those who should lover her the most, must not only save Roger and rescue Lord Asriel, but make decisions on which the fate of the universe rests.
Once a part of France’s African empire, Gabon gained its independence in 1960. However, the influence of the French tricolour can be seen in the design of its flag, which is a horizontal tricolour of green, yellow and blue, a combination of the French and Pan-African colours of African unity. The green represents the country’s rainforests and the lumber industry, the source of much of the nation’s wealth; the yellow represents the sun; and the blue stands for the sea. A former design, dropped just before independence, had a narrower yellow band and a French tricolour in the canton.
1. Whose assassination on 28 June 1914 sparked the war?
2. Which were the first two countries to declare war?
3. Which battle does Anzac Day specifically commemorate?
4. In which year did the battle of Verdun start?
5. During which years did the Attrition warfare take place?
6. When did the United States declare war on Germany?
7. Who won the WWI?
8. When was the Armistice between Germany and France signed?
9. Where was the treaty between France and Germany signed?
10 Which three European countries signed an alliance called the Triple Entente?
Last week’s answers:
4. Thomas Wilson
7. Dr Emanuel Lasker
9. Vishwanathan Anand
10. Alan Turing