December 31, 1879: Thomas Edison provided the first public demonstration of his electric incandescent lamp at his laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey.
January 1, 1958: The EEC (European Economic Community) known as the Common Market was formed by Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and The Netherlands in order to remove trade barriers and coordinate trade policies.
January 2, 1839: Photography pioneer Louis Daguerre took the first photograph of the moon.
January 3, 1521: Martin Luther was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.
January 4, 1942: Rose Heilbron became the first female judge to sit at the Old Bailey in London, England.
January 5, 1942: Alexander Dubcek became first secretary of Czechoslovakia's Communist Party. He introduced liberal reforms known as "Communism with a human face" which resulted in Soviet Russian troops invading Prague to crack down.
January 6, 2001: In one of the closest Presidential elections in U.S. history, George W. Bush was finally declared the winner of the bitterly contested 2000 Presidential elections more than five weeks after the election due to the disputed Florida ballots.
1946: Bell System introduced the first commercial mobile telephone service, called the Mobile Telephone System (MTS). The original equipment was large, weighing 80 pounds with limited calling bands available.
1956: Ericsson's Mobile System A (MTA) was the first partly automatic mobile system for automobiles. First used by Sweden, the unit weighed a whopping 88 pounds.
1964: With the adaption of Bell's newer pre-cellular Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), auto owners saw lighter, more advanced mobile car phones with push buttons.
1973: Martin Cooper made the first private, practical mobile phone call in a non-vehicle setting.
1983: Motorola's DynaTAC cellular phone was made available to the public, weighing under 2 pounds, but costing nearly $4,000.
1984: The Mobira Talkman brought longer talk time at cheaper costs.
1989: MicroTAC was the first flip phone design. The hardware was placed in a hinged section of the phone, reducing the phone's size when not in use.
1992: The Motorola International 3200 became the first hand-sized digital mobile phone that used 2G digitally encrypted technology.
1993: Perhaps the world's first smartphone, IBM Simon was a mobile phone, pager, fax machine and PDA, all rolled into one.
1997: The Nokia 9000 Communicator was the first cell phone that could also be called a mini-computer.
1998: The Nokia 8810 was the first cell phone without an external antenna whip or stub-antenna.
1999: Nokia's 7110 was the first cell phone to incorporate Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), which gave mobile users web access for simple devices.
1999: GeoSentric integrated the world's first mobile phone and a GPS navigator.
1999: In Japan, Kyocera's Visual Phone was the first to have a built-in camera.
2002: Danger Hiptop was one of the first phones to equip a fully functional web experience and integrate an instant messaging client (AIM).
2007: In 2007, Steve Jobs introduced the Apple iPhone, a revolutionary touchscreen smartphone.
2008: HTC Dream was the first smartphone to run Google's Android OS.
2010: The HTC EVO 4G from Sprint was the first cellular phone to meet 4G standards, running on the WiMAX network.
The younger daughter of history professor John Grey and his wife Elaine, Jean Grey was 10 years old when her mutant telepathic powers first manifested after experiencing the emotions of a dying friend. Her parents took her to be treated by Professor Charles Xavier. While Xavier treated Jean he also used her to fine tune his Cerebro machine. When Xavier introduced young Jean to the astral plane a part of her mind manifested as a Phoenix raptor and touched the mind of Scott Summers in the orphanage. Later, Xavier erected psychic shields in Jean’s mind to prevent her from using her telepathic powers until she was mature enough to control them. Eventually, using her telekinetic powers, Jean was a founding member of Xavier’s team of mutant trainees the X-Men as Marvel Girl. Upon a mission in outer space, Jean was noticed by the Phoenix Force which took note of her unlimited potential. At this moment, Jean had a vision of becoming the Phoenix but the vision faded from her memory as it ended.
Jean Grey possessed telepathic powers enabling her to read minds, project her thoughts into the minds of others, initiate astral travel, and mentally stun opponents with pure psionic force, among other talents. She also possessed telekinesis, allowing her to levitate and manipulate objects and others, generate force fields, fly, and stimulate heat molecules to generate concussive blasts. Her powers were magnified to near-infinite levels while she served as an avatar for the cosmic Phoenix Force. She was able to manipulate matter and energy on a molecular scale, although this varied on the Force’s status and how much power it chose to allocate to her.
Redd, Ms. Psyche, Jeannie, Marvel Girl
Place of Birth
Annandale-on-Hudson, New York City, New York
X-Men #1 (1963)
Bizarre Adventures #27 (1981)
Republic of Chile
While the French flag was used as a model by many countries in Europe who wanted to stress the ideals of progress and revolution, so too was the American flag in the New World in the early part of the 19th century. The colours of the Chilean flag were based on the Stars and Stripes, and it was adopted in 1817 during the struggle for freedom from Spain, initially being a horizontal tricolour of blue, white and red. The design was modified in 1854 to the present configuration: two horizontal bands of white over red, with a blue canton charged with a white star. The white band depicts the snow of the Andes Mountains, the blue the sky, the red the blood of the patriots who died in the struggle for independence, and the white star is a symbol of progress.
1. Which Downton woman encourages Gwen, the house maid, to become a secretary?
2. Who encourages Daisy to pursue her education?
3. What kills Lady Sybil?
4. What device is Mr. Carson and Lord Grantham hesitant to install in the house in season five?
5. Which characters participate in World War I?
6. Which of Lady Mary's potential suitors introduced her to Turkish diplomat Kemal Pamuk?
7. Who was Mr. Bates' vile late wife?
8. What major world event caused Matthew Crawley to become heir to the Grantham estate?
9. What is the Dowager Countess' favorite colour?
10. What is the real name of the historic building that plays Downton Abbey?
11. Who proposes to Daisy just before he’s killed during WWI?
12. Who helped Lady Mary and Lady Grantham carry Mr. Pamuk’s body?
13. What disease is the Crawleys' dog diagnosed with?
14. What does the Dowager Countess become ill with during season 4?
15. Who teaches Jimmy how to wind the clocks at Downton?
Last week’s answers:
1. Bay city, Michigan
2. Dunkin’ Donuts
5. Breakfast Club
9. The English roses
10. Material Girl
12. Susan Thomas
13. Arthur and the Invisibles
15. Guy Oseary
Located on Ludgate Hill in the financial district known as the City of London, St. Paul's Cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of London. The sacred cathedral, which was sacred even before Christianity arrived, was built after the Great Fire between 1675 and 1710. St. Paul’s Cathedral is the fourth cathedral that occupies the site.
Laid out in the shape of a cross, the cathedral was designed by Sir Christopher Wren. At the top of the cross is the choir and the altar, where the sacrament of communion takes place. Where the cross' two arms intersect is a great dome, marked by a great circle on the floor beneath it. The dome, the world's second-largest cathedral dome, weighs in at 65,000 tons. For Londoners, the vast dome, which still manages to dominate the skyline, is a symbol of resilience and pride, standing tall for more than 300 years. Cathedral’s main part stretches out in front of you under the high, domed ceiling as you enter the cathedral. This large open space holds large congregational services. The floor of the cathedral is tiled in a black and white checkerboard pattern. The north and south aisles of the sanctuary are narrow hallways between the pillars and walls on either side. The small domes above the aisles imitate the larger ones of the nave. Within the cathedral are plaques, carvings, monuments and statues dedicated to a wide range of people. The crypt, which has memorials to up to 300 heroes and military demigods, is in a basement underneath the cathedral.
The walkway around the base of the first of the three domes is called the Whispering Gallery, if you talk close to the wall here; your words will be carried to the opposite side, which is about 32 metres away. A further 119 steps brings you to the Stone Gallery, 152 iron steps above which is the Golden Gallery at the very top, rewarded with unforgettable views of London.