Insulin resistance is a physiological condition in which cells in the body become less responsive to the effects of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin plays a crucial role in regulating blood sugar (glucose) levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells, where it can be used for energy or stored for
future use.

In a healthy individual, when blood sugar levels rise after eating, the pancreas releases insulin to signal cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream. This helps lower blood sugar levels back to a normal range. However, in cases of insulin resistance, cells don't respond effectively to the insulin signal. As a result, the pancreas produces more insulin in an attempt to overcome this resistance and maintain normal blood sugar levels. This elevated insulin production can eventually lead to hyperinsulinemia, where there is an excess of insulin in the blood. Insulin resistance is commonly associated with several health conditions, including:

Type 2 Diabetes:
Over time, if the body cannot produce enough insulin to overcome the resistance, blood sugar levels can remain elevated, leading to type 2 diabetes. This is a chronic condition characterized by high blood sugar levels due to a combination of insulin resistance and impaired insulin production.

Metabolic Syndrome:
This refers to a cluster of conditions including high blood pressure, elevated blood sugar, excess abdominal fat, and abnormal cholesterol levels. Insulin resistance is a key underlying factor in metabolic syndrome.

Excess fat, especially abdominal fat, is linked to insulin resistance. Obesity and insulin resistance often occur together and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS):
PCOS is a hormonal disorder that can lead to irregular periods, ovarian cysts, and fertility issues. Insulin resistance is common among women with PCOS.

Cardiovascular Disease:
Insulin resistance is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and stroke, possibly due to its effects on blood vessel health and lipid metabolism.

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD):
Insulin resistance can also contribute to the accumulation of fat in the liver, leading to NAFLD.