Part - I
  • 06 Jul - 12 Jul, 2024
  • Mag The Weekly

Developmental psychologists have long been fascinated by how parents influence their children's development. Finding actual cause-and-effect links between specific actions of parents and later behaviour of children, on the other hand, is extremely difficult.

Some children raised in vastly different environments can develop eerily similar personalities as adults. Children who share a home and are raised in the same environment, on the other hand, can develop very different personalities. Despite these difficulties, researchers have proposed links between parenting styles and the effects these styles have on children. Some argue that these effects persist into adult behaviour.

Authoritarian Parenting
Children are expected to follow the strict rules established by the parents in this parenting style. Failure to follow such rules is usually punished. Authoritarian parents do not explain why their rules are in place. If pressed, the parent may simply say, "Because I said so." Other characteristics in common: While these parents have high expectations, they are not very responsive to their children. They expect their children to behave admirably and not make mistakes, but they give little guidance about what they should do or avoid in the future.

Mistakes are punished, often harshly, but their children are frequently left wondering what they did wrong. These parents, according to Baumrind, "are obedience- and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation." They are frequently characterised as domineering and dictatorial. "Spare the rod, spoil the child," they say. Children are expected to obey without question.

The Consequences of Authoritarian Parenting
Although authoritarian parenting styles produce obedient and competent children, they rank lower in happiness, social competence, and self-esteem. They may also be more inclined to lie in order to avoid punishment.

Authoritative Parenting
Those with an authoritative parenting style, like authoritarian parents, establish rules and guidelines for their children to follow. This parenting style, on the other hand, is far more democratic.

Characteristics of the authoritative parenting style include: Authoritarian parents are attentive to their children and eager to answer their questions. These parents have high expectations for their children, but they support them with warmth, feedback, and adequate support. When their children fail to meet expectations, these parents nurture and forgive rather than punish.

Authoritarive parents, according to Baumrind, are good at setting standards and monitoring their children's behaviour. Instead of being intrusive, restrictive, or punitive, their disciplinary methods are assertive and supportive.

The goal of authoritative parents is to raise children who are socially responsible, cooperative, and self-reliant. Children of authoritative parents benefit from the combination of expectation and support in developing skills such as independence, self-control, and self-regulation.

The Consequences of Authoritarian Parenting
Authoritarian parenting styles produce children who are happy, capable, and successful.

The Four Parenting Styles
Diana Baumrind, a psychologist, conducted a study on more than 100 preschool-age children in the 1960s. She identified some important aspects of parenting through naturalistic observation, parental interviews, and other research methods. These dimensions include disciplinary strategies, warmth and nurturing, communication styles, and maturity and control expectations. Baumrind proposed that the majority of parents exhibit one of three parenting styles based on these dimensions. Maccoby and Martin's later research proposed a fourth parenting style. Each of these has a unique impact on children's behaviour.

The four parenting styles that have been identify by Baumrind and other researchers are:
• The authoritarian parenting style
• The authoritative parenting style
• The permissive parenting style
• The uninvolved parenting style